Jet/Accretion Disk/Black Hole Movies

Movie 1

xObs-yObs UgBSqToThreeHalves Intensity Movie tObs2000M-2400M

This movie shows the simulation region projected onto an observer plane 80 gravitational radii (M) on a side (with axes in units of the simulation datablock spatial step  xStep = yStep = 80M/256) looking directly along the jet axis. Emission from the accretion disk (seen rotating counterclockwise) dominates jet emission in this zero opacity case with optically thin synchrotron emissivity j~u_g bμbμ (where ug is the gas internal energy).

Movie 2

Black hole/accretion disk from rotating vantage points

These images show intensity maps of emissivity j~bμbμ viewed along the jet axis then almost at a right inclination angle from the jet axis. In the latter image, horizon scale features are visible.

Movie 3

Viewed 30deg from jet axis: xObs-yObs D^2.5b^2 Intensity Movie ThetaObs 30deg tObs 1600M-2500M to .005MaxIntensity

xObs-yObs DDSqrtDbSq Intensity Map Theta Obs = 30deg, tObs = 2100M

This movie is shown with the jet axis from a large inclination angle from the (parallel) lines of sight to emphasize the jet.

Movie 4

Intensity map for j~bμbμ viewed 15° from jet axis

The images are shown here in rainbow and disk masked (by setting the middle fifth band of the simulated region in the direction away from the observer to zero) to accentuate coherent motion of high intensity regions of the jet outflow.

Movie 5 – Azimuthal Variation

Intensity maps for j~bμbμ with inclination 30° and Obs plane orientations 0,90,180 & 270°

These four panel image maps simultaneously show the jet from vantage points tilted 15° in the polar direction from the jet axis at varying azimuths 0° (top left), 90° (top right), 180° (bottom left) and 270° (bottom right).

Movies 6A and 6B – Energy Density Cuts

xObs-yObs bSqToThreeFourths Intensity Map Rainbow Zoom to 1.0IMax UgOnRhoGtr1Em1, ThetaObs=015deg, PhiObs=000deg, tObs=2112M, NuObs=001


In the 11-frame movies of  j~(bμ bμ).75 from (θObsObs) = (15°,0°) (top), the energy density per unit mass cut  ug/ρ >0.1 is made to exclude points outside the contour shown in the bottom movie. I use tStep=56M = 21days for M based on the gravitational radius of M87.

Movie 7 – Corkscrewing Jet

A movie derived from a model of observations of the M87 jet by the VLA with 21 days (= 56 rG(MM87)/c) using emissivity prescription j=(bμbμ) 3/4 and a geometric cut of simulation regions  |z|<20M and 0.5|z|<x2+y2 to make jet substructure prominent. Note the helical magnetic field structure corkscrewing outward (as seen in some 43GHz VLA observations) is indicative of a magnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

Movie 8 – Current Density Model Jet

xObs-yObs jSqModel 359x179 Optically Thin IntensityToOneThird Map Rainbow Zoom Offset MidCut=070M, ThetaObs=020deg, PhiObs=000deg, PhiOrient=202Pt5deg, NuObs=43GHz, TObs=2000M

In this model, a synchrotron emissivity

j~Pg b(1+p)/2 ν(p-1)/2

is used where the pressure Pg due to gas radiating at the observed frequency is related to dissipation by setting

Pg ~ (Dx By -Dy Bx )2z ,

where the z-component of the curl of the magnetic field is the current density along the jet axis. The movie is viewed from (θObsObs) = (15°,0°).


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